Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Symbols and abbreviations
1 Introduction
 1.1 Lightvalves
 1.2 Research scope
 1.3 Liquid crystal over silicon
  1.3.1 LCOS devices
  1.3.2 LCOS driving
  1.3.3 Projection
 1.4 Context
 1.5 Practical remarks
2 Microdisplay backplane technology
 2.1 Microdisplay requirements
  2.1.1 General
  2.1.2 Planarisation
  2.1.3 Lightshielding
  2.1.4 Solutions
 2.2 An integrated microdisplay CMOS process
  2.2.1 General
  2.2.2 Planarisation by CMP
  2.2.3 Lightshielding based on AR coatings
 2.3 A CMOS technology independent microdisplay process
  2.3.1 Introduction
  2.3.2 Reflec technology
  2.3.3 Comments and enhancements
  2.3.4 Reflec II
  2.3.5 Polyimide planarisation
  2.3.6 Black polyimide lightshielding
 2.4 Performance comparison
  2.4.1 Planarisation
  2.4.2 Lightshielding
  2.4.3 Conclusion
3 Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal
 3.1 Outlook on liquid crystals
  3.1.1 State of matter
  3.1.2 Phases
  3.1.3 Chirality
  3.1.4 Behaviour in electric fields
  3.1.5 Optical behaviour
 3.2 Modes
  3.2.1 General
  3.2.2 Untwisted modes
  3.2.3 Twisted modes
  3.2.4 Diffraction modes
  3.2.5 Others
 3.3 Features of the vertically aligned nematic mode
  3.3.1 Introduction
  3.3.2 Molecular tilt configuration
  3.3.3 LC layer thickness
  3.3.4 Contrast
  3.3.5 Voltage requirements
  3.3.6 Response speed
  3.3.7 Wavelength dependence
  3.3.8 Tolerances
  3.3.9 Conclusion
4 Liquid crystal alignment
 4.1 Introduction
 4.2 Alignment techniques
  4.2.1 Organic materials
  4.2.2 Inorganic materials
 4.3 Oblique evaporation technology
  4.3.1 Principle
  4.3.2 Material choice
  4.3.3 Existing techniques
  4.3.4 Proposed deposition technique
5 Cell assembly
 5.1 Introduction
  5.1.1 General
  5.1.2 Wafer assembly versus cell assembly
 5.2 Process Flow
  5.2.1 Glass material
  5.2.2 Cleaning
  5.2.3 Spacers
  5.2.4 Sealing ring
  5.2.5 Lamination
  5.2.6 Filling
  5.2.7 End seal
 5.3 Material selection
  5.3.1 General considerations
  5.3.2 Polymer adhesives
  5.3.3 Initial selection
  5.3.4 Influence of inorganic alignment layers
  5.3.5 Selection for inorganic alignment layers
  5.3.6 Conclusion
 5.4 Curing conditions
6 Evaluation
 6.1 Introduction
 6.2 Measurement method for cell parameters
  6.2.1 General
  6.2.2 Contrast
  6.2.3 Cell-gap
  6.2.4 Non-ideal conditions
 6.3 Electro-optical characterisation
  6.3.1 Electro-optical response curve
  6.3.2 Switching speed
  6.3.3 Vcom
  6.3.4 Spacer visibility
 6.4 Fringe field effects
  6.4.1 Disclinations
  6.4.2 Optical consequences
  6.4.3 Remedies
 6.5 Two-dimensional simulation of director configurations
  6.5.1 General
  6.5.2 Director dynamics
  6.5.3 Numerical solution
  6.5.4 Optics
 6.6 Simulation results
  6.6.1 Preliminary
  6.6.2 Inversion wall versus real disclination
  6.6.3 Pixel width to cell-gap ratio
  6.6.4 Influence of pre-tilt angle
  6.6.5 Influence of anchoring strength
  6.6.6 Combined effects
 6.7 Projector
  6.7.1 General
  6.7.2 Projector configuration
  6.7.3 Implementation
A List of publications
B Properties of liquid crystals
 B.1 MLC-6608
 B.2 MLC-6609
 B.3 MLC-6610
 B.4 MLC-6885
 B.5 MLC-6882
 B.6 MLC-6883
 B.7 MLC-6884
 B.8 MLC-6886
C Properties of Selectilux HTR3-200
 C.1 Physical properties
 C.2 Electrical properties
D Properties of DARC300
 D.1 Process flow
 D.2 Physical properties
E Properties of EXP99019V
F Properties of Sekisui Micropearl SP
G Properties of silicon
 G.1 Mechanical properties
  G.1.1 Linear coefficient of thermal expansion.
  G.1.2 Linear elastic modulus.
  G.1.3 Poisson’s Ratio.
H Properties of Corning 1737F
 H.1 Mechanical and electrical properties.
 H.2 Optical properties.
  H.2.1 Refractive index.
  H.2.2 Transmission and absorption.
I Properties of OG116-31
 I.1 Physical properties
 I.2 Optical properties
 I.3 Recommended cure
J ColorCorner
 J.1 Optical properties
Bibliography